Let me say that I feel a practical affinity with this subject, as somebody who volunteered to help around the Yacht Club with scrubbing off, cleaning hulls and applying antifouling paints for pocket money as a teenager.
Since then, having owned several boats myself, I have watched our industry go through the contortions of a love / hate affair with the dreaded smelly, sticky and rather expensive stuff, which is more likely to start a heated discussion in the yacht club bar than almost any other boat related subject!
Lets face it; it’s a poisonous potion that we’d rather not have to apply below our water lines, but we are consumed with dread about the consequences for our boats if we don’t do it regularly and properly. I’ve never met anyone who really enjoys doing their antifouling, although professional contractors might enjoy spending the money it earns them! And anyone who loves the sea, and its natural inhabitants, can never really be comfortable with introducing any form of toxicity into the marine environment.
However, as always, there are two sides to the argument, and this comes across very clearly in an advisory article recently published by the RYA in conjunction with the British Coatings Federation.
The basic facts.
The article starts off by confirming what most of us are highly aware of, which is quoted verbatim as follows: ‘Biocidal antifouling paints are hazardous mixtures that function by preventing the build-up of marine organisms on the hulls of commercial ships and pleasure craft of all sizes. Antifouling paints work largely by releasing biocides into the water, thus preventing organisms from attaching themselves to the bottom of boats.’
‘Whilst this is good for keeping the hull clean, improving efficiency through the water and preventing the spread of invasive non-native species, it does mean that some of the toxic ingredients leach into the water. Increased concentrations of copper can sometimes be found in the sediment around lift out points in estuaries and rivers and can find their way into the food chain causing a wide range of environmental problems.’
What could change?
The RYA / BCF article argues that the future quality and availability of antifouling paints in Europe, in particular for application to leisure craft, is now in some doubt. This is due to the requirement for all biocidal products to undergo a stringent authorisation procedure under the Biocidal Products Regulation (EU) No.528/2012 (BPR).
Now, whilst this may seem like a good protective measure for the ocean environment, there are counter arguments that it could also have considerable negative effects if the legislation is taken too far.
For instance, two other substantial threats to our future environment are excessive carbon emissions, and the spread of invasive species that upset the natural balance of biodiversity. The article warns that reduced effectiveness of antifoulings, which could come about due to ‘overkill’ on controlling biocides, would result in increased carbon dioxide emissions, and proliferation of invasive species.
So, a detrimental affect on the environment could be the result, and this would very likely be accompanied by a negative economic and social impact in the recreational boating sector, due to a fall in boat ownership numbers. The very last thing our industry needs!
Antifouling application in the spotlight
In 2015 the British Coatings Federation carried out the most comprehensive survey ever undertaken on the DIY use of antifouling paints in the UK. This was partly in reaction to suggestions from EU regulatory authorities that only professional contractors should undertake antifouling applications.
Encouragingly, the results found that more than 90% of boat owners were taking the correct precautions, but the survey highlighted several areas for improvements. These included the provision of training courses, better guidance on preparing the boat and disposing of waste paint, and further efforts that could be made to minimise the risks of skin contact with antifouling paint during its application.
The BCF launched an educational awareness campaign earlier this year, in order to improve the knowledge level of how to apply antifouling safely, and with environmental responsibility. The initiative has been fully supported by the RYA and other boating organisations, and it features a concise 5-minute video, which can be viewed here:
They also produced this handy reference leaflet highlighting the do’s and don’ts to be observed when carrying out your antifouling work.
Alternatives to antifouling
All in all, it’s hard to see how antifoulings can be avoided, and I guess they are not about to disappear any time soon, but understandably there are more alternatives being developed. Maybe not to replace them completely, but to help reduce the frequency of application.
One of them, which is gaining traction, is the Utrasonic antifouling method, which doesn’t rely on chemicals that can harm fish and mammals or pollute the air, and can reduce vessel lift-outs for cleaning.
Another interesting development is the introduction of underwater hull cleaning drones or robots. As with the Ultrasonic systems there are more innovative players coming into the market and the technology is being continuously refined.
Obviously avoiding the lift out, and removing bio fouling before it gets too aggressively attached is a merit that such systems can possibly deliver, and we plan to cover their attributes in more detail in a future Community article.
Have your say…go on, pretend you’re in the yacht club bar!
Are you an antifouling friend or foe? Do you think that the future holds better solutions for avoiding bio fouling on boats? Do you think that biocides have to be tolerated to a degree?
Please share your knowledge, opinions and experiences using the below comment box.
For the removal of existing bottom paint systems, I propose the follwing. We have the technology to fashion a robotic arm with incorporated laser gun / vacuum extraction. Add a software with camera function to identify; map; and navigate intended area to be serviced.Time for a mobile version of this concept).
Scott Van Allen / Railstar Marine Source Ctrl. Solutions
SHADES OF SHAMEFULL
This conversation is taking place right now in Canada. Here is one big idea from Spike On The Water that combines ideas from the Netherlands and Sweden to offer an alternative to anti-fouling. A soft launch has just gone up on LEOcrowd to generate awareness for the idea, to be followed by a main launch in about a month's time (late Oct or Nov 2017). - www.leocrowd.com/.../Spike-Station
Many thanks Scott Van Allen and Jonathan Lee for your comments and suggestions to this article.
Nice to see innovative ideas coming through, and I'm sure they will continue in the future.
It's clear that we have broken through the awareness barrier, and as history has proven, this opens the way for creative entrepreneurs to come up with commercially viable Solutions.
Thanks for posting about this topic. My client, NRG Marine, is launching a new product at METS which is being hailed as 'The future of anti-fouling, now'. They have been operating in this field for eleven years and have noticed a real shift in the commercial marine sector. Operators are looking for safer, more cost-efficient ways of protecting against marine fouling on their hulls and inside their raw water handling equipment.
Since 2006, NRG Marine has been developing Sonihull, its ultrasonic anti-fouling technology to combat one of the oldest challenges for marine vessels, fouling. Unwanted growth on your hull reduces speed and increases fuel consumption by up to 30%. In pipes, fouling can stop cooling systems and cause premature engine failure.
For decades, ultrasound has been used successfully in the food, brewing and hydroponic farming industries where the use of biocidal coatings and poisonous chemicals from impressed current cathodes is undesirable and prohibited. In these industries, ultrasonic anti-fouling prevents algal blooms and keeps water-handling equipment clean and free from blockages.
With increasingly stringent maritime legislation covering environmental protection, ballast water handling and invasive aquatic species prevention, commercial and recreational vessel owners and operators are being encouraged to find alternative solutions to their hull fouling and internal equipment protection requirements.
By focusing established ultrasonic technologies into marine applications, NRG Marine has developed an effective anti-fouling solution that is low cost, low maintenance, has zero environmental impact and performs well in conditions where traditional marine anti-fouling solutions struggle, like in waterjets and inside pipework.
Using a comprehensive range of adaptors and contact-fittings NRG’s ultrasonic anti-fouling systems are now used to control marine fouling on any vessel surface that is in contact with raw seawater. Ultrasound disrupts the first stages of the marine food chain by preventing waterborne producer-stage organisms like algae from settling and colonising surfaces. This prevents the proliferation of larger more complex vegetation and weeds and removes the conditions required to support barnacles, mussels and other invertebrates that would otherwise have the habitat required to attach.
With over 15,000 installations worldwide, Sonihull has become the industry leader in ultrasonic protection. NRG’s client portfolio includes commercial vessel giants Damen and the US Coast Guard as well as leading superyacht yards Heesen and Trinity Yachts. With specialist pipe adaptors, surface fittings and shaft bearings the Sonihull system is trusted on thousands of vessels to protect vital equipment, reduce maintenance schedules and maintain efficiency.
In recent years NRG Marine has been developing new devices to adapt to changes in the operational requirements in the workboat, commercial shipping and superyacht sectors.
Commercial vessels are experiencing overcapacity at the moment and need to be laid-up and reinstated efficiently without any delays or expensive mothballing procedures.
In the Superyacht sector, ever more complex onboard systems require integration with central control systems without increasing running costs or time-consuming operational burdens.
Wherever there is raw seawater Sonihull’s ultrasonic technology protects everything from sea-chests, tanks, box-coolers, keel-coolers, pipework, intakes and valves; keeping weeds, barnacles and mussels away season-after-season without using any hazardous chemicals, cathodes or paints, reducing expensive lift-outs and cleaning schedules.
The Sonihull system is maintenance-free, with no expensive anodes to replace, and completely safe on steel and aluminium vessels without specialist fitting or protection from impressed currents. The current draw during operation is much lower than cathodic systems and the system can also keep potable water fresher for longer and supress diesel bug in stored fuel.
It's an interesting time for the marine industry and I'm sure the development of new technologies will have the answers we all need to find better alternatives to environmental poisons.
Many thanks John Sharp, for your detailed comments about ultrasonic antifouling.
I must admit I am a convert to the idea, having had an ultrasonic system fitted to my own boat for over 3 years now, with good results as far as I can see. I must also admit that its not manufactured by NRG, but by UK based CMS Marine. But of course, there are few players in the market as you know, and I guess there will be more as the concept becomes more widely recognised and accepted as serious alternative. Like a lot of new innovative products I guess the danger is in the tendency to oversell the benefits. To be honest I was never told by the supplier that it would eliminate bio fouling completely, and indeed it does not, However, when comparing the amount of fouling, and ease of removal on lift-out, with other boats that have been in the water for a similar period, and without Ultrasonic fitted, there is a very clear positive difference in favour of my boat.
I also took on the challenge of installing the system myself, and have to say that it went quite smoothly, with no major problems. The supplier came and checked about a year later and said that it all looked good. So DIY installation does seem a possibilty for those that have some basic hands-on skills, and are keen to have a go.
I'm also guessing that just like antifouling paints, there may well be variances in performance depending on hull configuration, material of construction, and of course depending on the kind of waters that the boat is kept and operated in.
Mine is a steel boat, which seems to be very suitable. Getting the transducers perfectly epoxy bonded to the inside of the hull was assured, by carefully grinding the paint back to white metal first.
I'll certainly be looking forward to visiting the NRG stand at METS to see their new product. Maybe I'll see you there John?
Mactac, leader in high-performance adhesive films, will present at the METSTRADE 2017 its innovative and non-polluting alternative, compared to current fouling treatments. Thanks to it repelling properties, the patented adhesive film MacGlide protects hull from colonization by marine organisms without spreading biocides and/or pesticides.
Please have a look on our webpage: www.mactac.eu/news-macglide-a-world-premiere-innovation-at-the-paris-nautic-show-427.htm
We are a company in Sweden called Scrubbis that have developed a range of eco-friendly products to clean and maintain the boat hull from marine growth, while the boat is still in the water. You can read/see more about the products at http://www.scrubbis.com/
These products can be a complementary to antifouling paint. You actually don’t need any toxic in the paint if you use Scrubbis products regularly during the season.
We cooperate with some anti-fouling companies to reach out to boat owners about the complementary system; chemical and mechanical cleaning.
Thank you Hassan Yosef for contributing the information on your Scrubbis product range, which looks very innovative and simple to use. It will be interesting to see how the concept of regular self cleaning becomes adopted by boat owners in preference to the application of toxic antifoulings. Please keep us informed about developments in the Scandinavian market.
For protection of the gelcoat there are in the meantime good antifouling solutions. A major problem, however, is the protection of the drive. Fender-Design, the German specialist for fender covers, has developed an ideal solution for all ships with Z-drive together with the Albstadt University of Applied Science as part of a bachelor thesis.
The patent protected ANTIFOULING COVER is slipped over the Z-drive from the bathing platform with the help of two telescopic rods and an elaborate rope system with few hand movements. Long-term tests show overwhelming results. The formation of deposits is reduced by 99 %. Even with already overgrown drives, a large part of the organisms dies and dissolves automatically from the drive. The specially developed textile material is opaque. This prevents algae growth and the formation of microorganisms.
Fender-Design presents at METSTRADE 2017 - stand: 01.415.
The question about anti-foldings is in the highest degree on the agenda in Sweden. The responsible authority, Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management (Havs och Vattenmyndigheten), has issued recommendations to all municipal environmental agencies regarding the maximum limits for Cu, Zn, TBT and Irgarol. We can note that all regulatory authorities today follow the recommendations. Furthermore, it has been decided that the waste water from the washing of boats must not be emptied onto the ground and thereby increase the environmental impact. This means that when the boats are taken ashore in the fall (which is the case in Sweden due to ice etc.), they should be washed over a so called wash plate with a built-in waste water purification system or by using other technology such as the Hullwasher. The washing water must be cleaned mechanically and chemically and thereafter pass the target values. If not, the wash water must be transported to a facility for hazardous waste.
As an alternative to painting with anti-folding paint, you can blow the keel clean and then keep it clean using a brush wash. However, the number of brush wash facilities is limited today and an absolute majority chooses to use anti-fouling paint instead. In order to keep the underwater body clean from fouling, one has to brush the bottom 3-5 times per season, depending on where in the country you live (temperature and salinity), a measure that also results in financial consequences.
There is a lot of talk in Sweden about how dangerous copper in high concentrations is for the environment. There are almost no comments at all about TBT, and yet our authorities estimate that about 30% of the leisure boats in Sweden have TBT in underlying paint layers. According to American studies TBT is estimated to be 1000 times as dangerous to the environment as concentrated copper. In addition, TBT is said to have the ability to penetrate overlaying paint layers. When you wash your boat, the TBT will be a very heavy strain on the environment.
Maybe it is time to focus on how to ensure that boats do not have TBT in underlying paint layers instead of chasing anti-folding paint? When TBT is deleted from the agenda then it is time to address the anti-folding issue!
A method of measuring TBT is developed and used by some of Sweden's regulatory authorities (www.happyboat.net ). (The webpage is only available in Swedish today. Sorry about that).
COO Ekowasher Sweden AB
Very interesting subject indeed. Our company CarenEcolo, will be presenting at METRADE 2017 a new system composed of a water recuperation area where you can wash your boat and a mobile filtration unit that takes care of filtering all biocides, copper, TBT, and other materials from the washwater. A very economical system that can go anywhere, used on different ports and marinas and keep our environment from being polluted by antifouling paints.
Please visit our website www.carenecolo.fr and come to visit us at METS stand 05.510
Jean Yvon TURPAUD/ CarenEcolo
Thank you Daniele Perotti for your comments and supplementary info to this article. I have mentioned your product and your attendance at METS in the recently posted follow up article here: community.metstrade.com/.../antifouling-will-alternatives-take-hold Its very encouraging to see so many new innovative solutions for bio fouling being developed.
Many thanks Ilona Renz for your comments to this article, and for providing info on your very interesting product. Its great to see academic projects producing such commercially viable solutions. This one seems to be based on such a simple concept of providing a protective cover for the Z-drive, which is easy for the boat owner to fit as required, and obviously the textile material selected is a key to success . I will look forward to see the product at METS!
Thank you very much Bertil for taking the time to let us know about what is happening in Sweden, and how the authorities are dealing with toxicity of antifouling paints. Your comments about TBT are particularly interesting, and I can well see how the built up layers of antifouling on older boats are still releasing it into the marine environment, even though it may have not been present in the upper layers due to new legislation. I have mentioned hull cleaning methods in the follow up article recently published: community.metstrade.com/.../antifouling-will-alternatives-take-hold I guess that various developing concepts such as hull cleaning robots, and automatic boat wash facilities (as mentioned in another response by Jonathan Lee will start to be seen more, as the technology becomes more refined and the costs become more competitive. I also see the opportunity for yacht clubs and marinas to invest in such concepts, and to therefore spread the cost across a larger number of boat owners to enable regular hull cleaning to take place.
Many thanks Jean Yvon TURPAUD for your comments and product info. I had a look at your website, and I can well see that the product will find uses in marinas and yacht clubs that are hauling out hundreds of boats and pressure washing the hulls at the end of the season. Other responders to this article have indicated how legislation is becoming tighter, and better solutions for containmant of toxic leaching from antifoulings will have to be found. Bertil in particular gives a good account of the developing situation in Scandinavia.
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